Available Languages

       

Programme

 

 

 

 

 

 

Project Description


1. Brief Description of the Project



CESAPO - Contribution of Emission Sources on the Air quality of the Port-cities in Greece and Italy

 

Contract Number: Ι1.32.06

 

Brief Description of the Project

 

The port areas are poles for many human and commercial activities. They are economic centres and transport hubs, that bring together different transport modes (sea, road transport etc) and also industrial activities. Ports can be seen as an opportunity for social and financial development. However, their potential should be exploited in a sustainable manner. The Mediterranean Sea represents one of the natural stages for many human, commercial and industrial activities. During the last decades, there has been an increasing urbanization pressure on the Mediterranean port-cities with impacts not only on their economic growth but also on their environment. The Mediterranean coastal densely populated and industrialised areas are often characterised by photochemical air pollution episodes due to anthropogenic emissions (road traffic, maritime transportation, industry) but also because of the prevailing physical and meteorological conditions allowing phenomena that enhance air pollution.

 

The general objective is to quantify the contribution of emission sources to the air pollution of the port cities, giving more emphasis on the maritime transport and the activities within the harbor and link the scientific outcomes with integrated proposed actions for sustainable urban development in the Mediterranean. The actions will favour and support the implementation of EU Directives and International laws. The project focuses on two important port-cities, namely Patra (Greece) and Brindisi (Italy). The project includes the following specific objectives:

1) To understand the levels of air pollution in Patra and Brindisi, giving more emphasis on aerosol pollutants (coarse, fine and ultrafine particulate matter (PM)), using a state-of-the-art integrated approach between experimental data and advanced numerical model simulations.

2) To use data from both experimental campaigns and the application of photochemical models in order to estimate the emission source attribution.

3) To pinpoint the relative contribution of pollution sources to the air quality of the urban agglomerations and more particularly to assess the environmental impact of the pollutants emissions from the maritime transport and the activities within the harbor.

4) To compare the source attribution between the study areas to identify common features and understand differences related to the air pollution causes.

5) To study the impacts on air quality of different scenarios of development for each study area and support this way the strategic decisions of authorities in terms of sustainable growth and environmental management.

6) To operate an instrument for monitoring air pollution in the Municipality of Patra.

7) To share knowledge, experiences and tools between the project partners.

8) To consolidate a network of communication among the local and environmental authorities, the research institutions and the public.

2. Project Identification


Project Identification

 

Brief History of the Project

 

The study and monitoring of air pollution is a key issue of environmental policies and science due to its impact on the natural environment and public health. Improved policies and increase of scientific knowledge on the contribution of emission sources on atmospheric pollution are needed. This is supported by recent scientific findings of several of the PPs (Contini et al., 2009. "Characterization and source apportionment of PM10 in a background site in Lecce", Atmos Res (in press), and Stortini et al., 2009. "Evaluation on PM2.5 inorganic elemental composition in Venice Lagoon area and analysis of possible sources". Atmos Environ (in press)). The last decades there have been some improvements in the reduction of pollution from primary pollutants (sulphur dioxide) while air pollution because of secondary pollutants (ozone) and particulate matter (coarse, fine and ultrafine) has not been controlled. This is supported by the environmental authorities, including those participating as PPs, which require more extended monitoring networks and more intensive studies to clarify the sources that contribute more to the atmospheric pollution which should be better regulated. The above concerns especially the port-cities where maritime transport and other activities take place within the harbour. The studies on the contribution of these activities on air pollution have been very limited while any existing relevant policies need improvements. CESAPO is based on the common need of Patra and Brindisi to fill the gaps by delivering a new governance model based on an accurate control of air pollution as a driver for strategic governance choices in the coastal areas. To maximize the impact of the project, the PPs have been organized in each area in order to include research institutes to carry out the scientific work and environmental policy authorities to capitalize the scientific outcomes and use them to improve the governance and policy capacity.

 

Background of the Project (problems/target groups/challenges to be addressed)

 

Port-cities attract several human activities that contribute to economic development but at the same time are sources of pollution and risk. The ports provide employment opportunities and usually large urban settlements grow around them. Hence, in the port-cities all the major emission source sectors are present: the transport sector (maritime, road, railway etc), industries, household heating and waste treatment. The urbanized character of many port-cities highlights the spatial impact of pollutants such as particulate matter (PM), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and ozone (O3) upon the natural environment. The maritime transport sector contributes significantly to the air pollution, particularly in the coastal areas given that nearly 70%of ship emissions occur within 400km of land. Of particular importance is the fact that around 95% of the ship generated total PM is of an aerodynamic diameter of less than 2.5 microns (fine and ultra fine PM) that seriously affect the human health. Significant increase of cargos/freight traffic & passengers docking is estimated over the next years in the Mediterranean area (ranging from 44% to 54% accordingly) and is actually determining deep changes in the expansion of the under study ports (Patra and Brindisi). Ports should strongly be involved in the adoption of mitigation measures. Although, the need to control air pollution at ports is widely acknowledged as an active policy issue by various authoritative port associations and although policy-making on atmospheric pollution from shipping has started to evolve, the introduction of improved and new effective regulations at European and national level is urgently needed. The quantification of the contribution of emission sources to the air pollution in the port-cities is a complex issue and cannot be addressed by the existing monitoring networks. Consolidated and readily available information in this vein is currently lacking from the wider EU community. For this reason, many current air quality policies do not have the expected impact in terms of reducing the air pollution in port-cities. However, there are institutions involved in the air quality management and research (including the PPs) that have individual experience and know-how in implementing tools that can be used to tackle the above issue. These institutions should be brought together and joint efforts and experiences under a common framework. The proposed project makes a contribution in addressing the issue of air pollution caused by different emissions sources using advanced scientific tools. The project pays more attention on the emissions (gaseous and coarse/fine/ulrafine PM) from the activities in the port areas. In addition, it aims to inform the interested non-experts. Finally, it attempts to suggest measures and promote and encourage initiatives concerning the elaboration of mitigation strategies that can effectively serve the policy makers and the port authorities.

 

Objectives of the Project

 

The general objective of the project is to quantify the contribution of emission sources to the air pollution of the port cities, giving more emphasis on the maritime transport and the activities within the harbour, and link the scientific outcomes with integrated proposed actions for sustainable urban development in the Mediterranean Region. The actions will favour and support the implementation of EU Directives and International laws. The project focuses on two important port-cities, namely Patra (Greece) and Brindisi (Italy). The project includes the following specific objectives:

1) To understand the levels of air pollution in Patra and Brindisi, giving more emphasis on aerosol pollutants (coarse and fine particulate matter), using a state-of-the-art integrated approach between experimental data and advanced numerical model simulations.

2) To use data from both experimental campaigns and the application of photochemical models in order to estimate the emission source attribution.

3) To pinpoint the relative contribution of pollution sources to the air quality of the urban agglomerations and more particularly to assess the environmental impact of the pollutants emissions from the maritime transport and the activities within the harbor.

4) To compare the source attribution between the study areas to identify common features and understand differences related to the air pollution causes.

5) To study the impacts on air quality of different scenarios of development for each study area and support this way the strategic decisions of authorities in terms of sustainable growth and environmental management.

6) To operate an instrument for monitoring air pollution in the Municipality of Patra.

7) To share knowledge, experiences and tools between the project partners.

8) To consolidate a network of communication among the local and environmental authorities, the research institutions and the public.

 

Expected Outputs (tangible and visible results or products relating to project activities)

 

The expected project outputs are the following:

1) 3 Workshops, 2) 4 Local seminars, 3) 3 Press conferences (2 national and 1 international), 4) 1 Web-site development (in 3 languages), 5) Leaflets (3000 copies), 6) 4 Newsletters (2.000 copies), 7) 2 Project brochures (one in each native language), 8) Creation of two emission inventory databases (one for each study area) and a database of air quality observed data, 9) A good practice guide with integrated proposed actions for sustainable development of port-cities to support policy making, 10) Operation of a mobile air quality monitoring station by the Reg. of Western Greece, 11) 6 papers prepared to be submitted in international peer-reviewed journals, 12) Training of the staff of the Region of Western Greece on the operation of a mobile air monitoring station, 13) 7 assessment reports based on the observational and model data, 14) 3 working-tables between environmental policy authorities and port authorities to promote improved environmental management and try to reach best practice strategy agreements and 15) Participation in 10 international conferences. The project outputs are interventions to encourage and improve the joint protection and management of the natural environment.

 

Expected Results (direct and immediate effects resulting from the project)

 

1) 2 regional authorities with increased capacity for implementing effective air quality policy.

2) 3 research institutes that share knowledge and scientific tools and increase their scientific knowledge.

3) 11 information activities for the public.

4) 2 staff members with increased technical skills and knowledge (at least).

5) 20 dissemination activities of the knowledge acquired on the impacts of the maritime transport and the activities within the harbor on particulate air pollution.

6) 2 possible voluntary best practice strategy agreements between environmental policy authorities and port authorities (one for each country).

7) 1 good practice guide describing possible policy improvements and recommendations for sustainable development and economic growth of the port-cities. The number of people that would benefit from the results of the project are at least those leaving in the port-cities of Patra and Brindisi which are about 255.000.

3. Methodological Approach


Methodological Approach 

 

Project Methodology

 

WP1 and WP2 are organised in order to ensure that the objectives of the project are successfully met and the planned outputs and deliverables are produced. Effective management is supported by the LP having the overall responsibility of management and coordination and the WPs Leaders who assure the proper management within each WP. Regular progress meetings throughout the duration of the project allow the partners to exchange knowledge and tools, to share experiences and process all information to produce the outputs and results of the project. Communication and dissemination activities are scheduled from the beginning until the end of the project. Apart from ensuring that the outputs and results are communicated to the relevant stakeholders and interested parties, these activities can also generate feedback to inseminate the consortium with new information and enrich the quality of the project results. The above are facilitated with the use of different channels (organization of workshops, seminars and press-conferences, participation in conferences, maintenance of a project webpage, leaflets, brochures and newsletters) to link the partners with a broad range of target groups. The communication and dissemination activities begin on the local level in the individual countries to establish a strong foundation for the future exploitation of the project results and then escalate to international level (organization of international workshop and press-conference, participation in international conferences). WP3 aims to increase the capacity of regional authorities for air quality monitoring and more effective implementation of air quality policies, and also to improve the knowledge and increase the technical skills on air quality monitoring of the staff of the regional authorities. WP4 represents the platform to trigger the model simulations and the monitoring campaigns. WP4 is addressed to: 1) capitalization of the results from existing studies on air-pollution in the port-cities, 2) creation of databases with updated emission data and collection of model input data and 3) territorial recognition to set-up monitoring campaigns. WP5 aims to the use of concrete scientific tools (numerical models and monitoring instrumentation) to address the issue of the contribution of emission sources to the air pollution of the port-cities with more emphasis on the maritime transport and the activities within the harbour. The assessment reports written and the papers published within WP5 can act as a basis to allow decision support for sustainable development policies (WP6). In WP6, the scientific outcomes are linked with integrated proposed actions for sustainable development of the port-cities. A good practice guide is issued and best practice strategy agreements are promoted with working-tables between environmental policy and port authorities.

 

Roles - Task of Partners

 

UPATRAS as the LP has the overall responsibility of the project progress. UPATRAS is responsible for the administrative and financial management and coordination. UPATRAS acts as an efficient interface between the JTS/MA and the consortium and allows the channeling of all information to the PPs. UPATRAS has contribution to all WPs. It contributes to the dissemination activities, to scientific actions involving monitoring and computational expertise and to the activities relevant with the support and improvement of sustainable development policies. UPATRAS is the leader of WP1 and WP6. RWG is responsible for the supply and operation of an air quality monitoring station in Patra. RWG will be involved in publicity and dissemination of results of the project. RWG will also have an active contribution in the successful interaction between environmental and port authorities. RWG is the leader of WP3. UNISAL contributes with a role in inorganic chemical characterisation of collected PM samples in the Brindisi area and also in the modelling at small scale of  pollution dispersion from the harbor activity emissions. UNISAL is the leader of WP4. ISAC-CNR has an active role on the experimental and large scale modeling analysis in the Brindisi area collecting samples. ISAC-CNR contributes to the dissemination activities and will provide support in terms of competence and data to other PPs. ISAC-CNR aims to the evaluation of harbor activities contribution to atmospheric concentration of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons. ISAC-CNR is the leader of WP5. ARPA-Puglia is involved directly in the measurement campaign in the Brindisi harbor area with special focus on gaseous pollutant and in data analysis from the regional air quality monitoring network that will be used for comparison with models as well as for the evaluation of background concentration. ARPA-Puglia will be involved in publicity and dissemination of results of the project. ARPA-Puglia is the leader of WP2.

 

Location of Activities

 

Patras is the major city of Western Greece. The port of Patras is the second largest in. It is the main maritime terminal of Western Greece, the most important that connects Greece with Italy and therefore with Europe. Also the majority of goods between Greece and Europe transits through it. The port of Patras can be accessed by cargo ships up to 25 000 tons and passenger ferries up to 16 000 register tons and 220 m long. There are 8 000 sq.m. covered storage facilities and 80 000 sq.m. outdoor storage facilities. In the year 2001, 1 315 019 passengers, 280 689 trucks and 248 309 cars transited through it. Statistics show that the traffic at the port of Patras is constantly increasing and also do the related environmental problems. The quantity and the quality of the exhaust gases of ships reaching the port depends on the technical characteristics of the ships, their speed, their age and their capacity. One of the main environmental issues in Patra is that ships when maneuvering inside the port have to operate their engines full steam and therefore the pollutant emissions increase. Also the important traffic of vehicles in the port area is another major air pollution source. The ISAC-CNR and UNISAL are located in Lecce and ARPA Puglia has the headquarter in Bari and provincial department in Brindisi, Foggia, Lecce and Taranto. The activities in Italy will be focussed on studying the harbour area of Brindisi that has a part inside the town and it is therefore located near the inhabited centre. Thereby emission of harbour activities could have an important role in atmospheric pollution and air quality problems. What is more the Province of Brindisi is subjected to significant anthropogenic emissions of atmospheric pollutants being present one of the largest coal fired power plant in Italy and a petrol chemical complex.